Treatment of landfill leachate with different techniques: an overview
Landfill leachate is characterised by high chemical and biological oxygen demand and generally consists of undesirable substances such as organic and inorganic contaminants. Landfill leachate may differ depending on the content and age of landfill contents, the degradation procedure, climate and hydrological conditions. We aimed to explain the characteristics of landfill leachate and define the practicality of using different techniques for treating landfill leachate. Different treatments comprising biological methods (e.g. bioreactors, bioremediation and phytoremediation) and physicochemical approaches (e.g. advanced oxidation processes, adsorption, coagulation/flocculation and membrane filtration) were investigated in this study. Membrane bioreactors and integrated biological techniques, including integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidation and nitrification/denitrification processes, have demonstrated high performance in ammonia and nitrogen elimination, with a removal effectiveness of more than 90%. Moreover, improved elimination efficiency for suspended solids and turbidity has been achieved by coagulation/flocculation techniques. In addition, improved elimination of metals can be attained by combining different treatment techniques, with a removal effectiveness of 40–100%. Furthermore, combined treatment techniques for treating landfill leachate, owing to its high chemical oxygen demand and concentrations of ammonia and low biodegradability, have been reported with good performance. However, further study is necessary to enhance treatment methods to achieve maximum removal efficiency.
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